Detects human GITR/TNFRSF18 in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs and Western blots, less than 5% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse GITR and recombiant human 4-1BB is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human GITR/TNFRSF18 Gln26-Glu161 (Thr45Ala) Accession # Q9Y5U5
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Recombinant Human GITR/TNFRSF18 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 689-GR)
2.5 µg/106 cells
Human T cells treated with PHA
Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
In a functional ELISA, 1-2 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 10 ng/mL of Recombinant Biotinylated Human GITR Ligand/TNFSF18 to immobilized Recombinant Human GITR/TNFRSF18 Fc Chimera (Catalog # 689-GR) coated at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well). At 10 μg/mL, this antibody will block >90% of the binding.
Ready to be labeled using established conjugation methods. No BSA or other carrier proteins that could interfere with conjugation.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
GITR/TNFRSF18 in Human Tonsil. GITR/TNFRSF18 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human tonsil using Goat Anti-Human GITR/TNFRSF18 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF689) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to trabeculae sinuses. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
GITR (glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor, also named AITR, activation-inducible TNF R family member), is a 228 amino acid (aa) type I transmembrane protein belonging to the TNF R family and has been designated TNFRSF18. The GITR cytoplasmic domain has striking homology with the cytoplasmic domain of 4-1BB and CD27. Human GITR shares 55% homology with murine GITR. GITR is expressed at low levels in peripheral blood T cells, bone marrow, thymus, spleen, and lymph nodes. In contrast to mouse GITR, expression of human GITR is not induced by treatment with dexamethasone, but is up‑regulated by antigen stimulation or by treatment with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28, or PMA plus ionomycin. Human GITR ligand was identified from human umbilical vein endothelial cells and is a 177 aa polypeptide belonging to the TNF superfamily (TNFSF18). Ligation of GITR can activate NF-kappa B through TRAF2, and protect T cells from TCR activation-induced cell death. It has been proposed that GITR ligand and GITR may modulate T lymphocyte functions.
Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:6216.
Kwon, B. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274:6056.
Gurney, A.L. et al. (1999) Current Biology 9:215.
Kwon, B. et al. (1999) Current Opinion in Immunology 11:340.
Glucocorticoid Induced TNF Receptor Family Related Gene
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.