Human IL-31 Antibody

  
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human IL‑31 in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse IL-31 is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant human IL-31
    Ser24-Thr164
    Accession # Q6EBC2
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human IL‑31 (Catalog # 2824-IL)
  • Immunocytochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
    • Human IL-31 Sandwich Immunoassay
      Reagent
  • ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.2-0.8 µg/mL 
    Human IL‑31 Antibody (Catalog # AF2824)
  • ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.1-0.4 µg/mL 
    Human IL‑31 Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF2824)
  • ELISA Standard
     
    Recombinant Human IL-31 Protein (Catalog # 2824-IL)
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize IL‑31-induced STAT3 activation in the U‑87 MG human glioblastoma/astrocytoma cell line. 1 μg/mL of this antibody can completely neutralize rhIL-31 (5 ng/mL) induced STAT3 activation in U-87 MG cells
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Immunocytochemistry
IL‑31 in Human PBMCs. IL‑31 was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) treated with calcium ionomycin and PMA using Goat Anti-Human IL‑31 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF2824) at 15 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cell surfaces and cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: IL-31

Human Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a 24 kDa, short-chain member of the alpha -helical family of cytokines. The human IL-31 cDNA encodes a 164 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 23 aa signal peptide and a 141 aa mature protein (1, 2). The mature region shows four alpha -helices which would be expected to show a typical up‑up‑down‑down topology. Human and mouse IL-31 share 24% aa sequence identity in the mature region (1). IL-31 is mainly associated with activated T cells and preferentially expressed by Th2 rather than Th1 cells. IL-31 signals via a heterodimeric receptor complex composed of a 120 kDa, gp130-related molecule termed IL‑31 RA (also GPL and GLM-R) and the 180 kDa oncostatin M receptor (OSM R beta ) (2‑6). In the complex, IL-31 directly binds to GPL, not OSM R (2, 3). IL-31 signaling has been shown to involve the Jak/STAT pathway, the PI3 kinase/AKT cascade, and the MAP kinase pathway (2‑5). Although multiple isoforms of IL-31 RA are known, only a form that contains the entire length of the cytoplasmic domain is signaling-capable (2, 3). The IL-31 receptor is constitutively expressed by keratinocytes and upregulated by IFN-gamma on monocytes (1). Studies using transgenic mice indicate that IL-31 may contribute to the pruritis (itching) associated with nonatopic dermatitis (1, 7).

  • References:
    1. Dillon, S.R. et al. (2004) Nat. Immunol. 5:752.
    2. Diveu, C. et al. (2004) Eur. Cytokine Netw. 15:291.
    3. Dreuw, A. et al. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279:36112.
    4. Diveu, C. et al. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278:49850.
    5. Ghilardi, N. et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem 277:16831.
    6. Mosley, B. et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271:32635.
    7. Takaoka, A. et al. (2005) Eur. J. Pharmacol. 516:180.
  • Long Name:
    Interleukin 31
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    386653 (Human); 76399 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    IL31; IL-31; IL-31interleukin-31; interleukin 31
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