|Detection of Human Prolactin by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of human pituitary tissue. PVDF membrane was probed with 0.25 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF682) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for Prolactin at approximately 23 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.|
|Prolactin in Human Testis. Prolactin was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human testis using Goat Anti-Human Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF682) at 1 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm of sperm cells. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.|
|Cell Proliferation Induced by Prolactin and Neutralization by Human Prolactin Antibody. Recombinant Human Prolactin (Catalog # 682-PL) stimulates proliferation in the Nb2‑11 rat lymphoma cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human Prolactin (0.5 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human Prolactin Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF682). The ND50 is typically 0.02-0.05 µg/mL.|
Prolactin (PRL) is a neuroendocrine pituitary hormone. Prolactin is synthesized by the anterior pituitary, placenta, brain, uterus, dermal fibroblasts, decidua, B cell, T cells, NK cells, and breast cancer cells. Originally characterized as a lactogenic hormone, studies have demonstrated broader roles in breast cancer development, regulation of reproductive function, and immunoregulation. In the immune system, prolactin has been shown to be secreted by human PBMC and to act as a proliferative growth factor. Additionally, prolactin treatment of human PBMC has been shown to enhance IFN-gamma production. Prolactin has several molecular forms. The predominant form is a monomer, the non-glycosylated form is 23 kDa and the glycosylated form is 25 kDa. Glycosylated prolactin is removed from the circulation faster and has been reported to have lower biological potency. Prolactin cDNA encodes a 227 amino acid residue protein with a putative 28 aa residue signal peptide. The prolactin receptor is a transmembrane type I glycoprotein that belongs to the cytokine hematopoietic receptor family. B cells, T cells, macrophages, NK cells, monocytes, CD34+ progenitor cells, neutrophils, mammary gland, liver, kidney, adrenals, ovaries, testis, prostrate, seminal vesicles, and hypothalamus have all been shown to express the prolactin receptor. Three forms of the receptor, generated by differential splicing, have been identified. These isoforms differ in the length of their cytoplasmic domains. It is believed that the short cytoplasmic form is non-functional. Prolactin signal transduction involves the JAK/STAT families and Src kinase family.
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