Human TLR4 Antibody
Human TLR4 Antibody Summary
Accession # O00206
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Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
TLR4 is a 100 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the mammalian Toll-Like Receptor family of pathogen pattern recognition molecules. MD-2, also known as ESOP-1, is a 25 kDa secreted protein that is required for TLR4-mediated responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (1-3). The human TLR4 cDNA encodes an 839 amino acid (aa) precursor that contains a 23 aa signal sequence, a 608 aa extracellular domain (ECD), a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 187 aa cytoplasmic domain. TLR4 contains 21 leucine rich repeats in its ECD and one cytoplasmic Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain (4). The ECD of human TLR4 shares approximately 25% aa sequence identity with other TLRs and 60%-74% aa sequence identity with bovine, equine, feline, mouse, rat, and porcine TLR4. The human MD-2 cDNA encodes a 160 aa precursor with an 18 aa signal sequence (5). Human MD-2 shares 20% aa sequence identity with MD-1 and 62%-64% aa sequence identity with bovine, mouse, and rat MD-2. MD-2 associates with TLR4 on monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells (5-7). MD-2 expression is required for cell surface localization of TLR4 and for optimal LPS-induced TLR4 signaling (7, 8). MD-2 also forms soluble disulfide-linked homo-oligomers which can interact with TLR4 (6). Through a domain separate from its TLR4-binding domain, MD-2 extracts LPS from circulating CD14-LPS complexes and carries the LPS into a ternary complex with TLR4 (9-11). The interaction of MD-2/LPS with TLR4 induces receptor oligomerization and the triggering of an inflammatory response (12). Increased levels of plasma MD-2 in septic shock patients sensitizes MD-2 non-expressing epithelial cells to LPS and promotes widespread tissue inflammation (13).
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- Saitoh, S. et al. (2004) J. Endotoxin Res. 10:257.
- Pugin, J. et al. (2004) Blood 104:4071.
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