|Growth Hormone R/GHR in Mouse Liver. Growth Hormone R/GHR was detected in perfusion fixed frozen sections of mouse liver using Mouse Growth Hormone R/GHR Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1360) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Frozen Tissue Sections.|
Growth hormone (GH), also known as somatotropin, is a member of a family of growth factors that includes prolactin, placental lactogens, proliferins and somatolactin (1, 2). It is synthesized primarily by somatotropes in the anterior pituitary and is released as an endocrine hormone. Other cells and tissues, including lymphoid tissues, can also produce GH (3). GH is a pleiotropic molecule which can act directly or indirectly via IGF-I to regulate growth and metabolism as well as enhance T cell survival and thymic functions (1, 2, 4). GH exerts its biological actions by binding to the GH receptor (GHR) that is present in many cell types (1, 2). Mouse GHR cDNA encodes a 650 amino acid (aa) residue type I transmembrane protein with a 24 aa signal peptide, a 249 aa extracellular domain, a 24 aa transmembrane domain, and a 353 aa cytoplasmic domain (5). An alternatively spliced secreted isoform of mouse GHR also exists (6). This variant corresponds to the serum GH‑binding protein. Ligation of GHR by GH has been shown to result in receptor dimerization and activation of the JAK/STAT signaling cascade (7). The soluble GHBP has been shown to interfere with GH signaling by competing with the transmembrane receptor of GH. Alternatively, the GHBP has also been shown to enhance GH action by slowing GH clearance (8).
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