Human Axl Antibody

(23 citations)
(2 Reviews)
  
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human Axl in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 25% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse Axl is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    Mouse myeloma cell line NS0-derived recombinant human Axl
    Glu33-Pro440
    Accession # AAA61243
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    1 µg/mL
    See below
  • Flow Cytometry
    0.25 µg/106 cells
    See below
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
  • Blockade of Receptor-ligand Interaction
    In a functional ELISA, 3-10 µg/mL of this antibody will block 50% of the binding of 20 ng/mL of biotinylated Recombinant Human Gas6, lacking the Gla domain, to immobilized Recombinant Human Axl Fc Chimera (Catalog # 154-AL) coated at 2 µg/mL (100 µL/well). At 100 μg/mL, this antibody will block >90% of the binding.
  • CyTOF-ready
    Ready to be labeled using established conjugation methods. No BSA or other carrier proteins that could interfere with conjugation.
  • Knockout Validated
    Axl is specifically detected in A431 human epithelial carcinoma parental cell line but is not detectable inAxl knockout A431 cell line.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Human Axl by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of HeLa human cervical epithelial carcinoma cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 1.0 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Axl Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF154) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for Axl as an approximately 140 kDa glycoprotein (as indicated). This experiment was conducted using Immunoblot Buffer Group 2.
Detection of Axl in A431 Human Cell Line by Flow Cytometry. A431 human epithelial carcinoma cell line was stained with Goat Anti-Human Axl Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF154, filled histogram) or normal goat IgG control antibody (Catalog # AB-108C, open histogram) followed by APC-conjugated anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0108). View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Immunohistochemistry
Axl in Human Stomach. Axl was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human stomach using Goat Anti-Human Axl Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF154) at 3 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC004). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to plasma membranes of epithelial cells in gastric glands. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.
Knockout Validated
Western Blot Shows Human Axl Specificity by Using Knockout Cell Line. Western blot shows lysates of A431 human epithelial carcinoma parental cell line and Axl knockout A431 cell line (KO). PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human Axl Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF154) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). A specific band was detected for Axl at approximately 150 kDa (as indicated) in the parental A431cell line, but is not detectable in knockout A431 cell line. GAPDH(Catalog # AF5718) is shown as a loading control. This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Knockout Validated
Axl Specificity is Shown by Flow Cytometry in Knockout Cell Line. Axl knockout A431 human epithelial carcinoma cell line was stained with Goat Anti-Human Axl Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF154, filled histogram) or normal goat IgG control antibody (Catalog # AB-108C, open histogram) followed by APC-conjugated anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # F0108). No staining was observed in the Axl knockout A431 cell line. View our protocol for Staining Membrane-associated Proteins.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: Axl

Axl (Ufo, Ark), Dtk (Sky, Tyro3, Rse, Brt), and Mer (human and mouse homologues of chicken c-Eyk) constitute a subfamily of the receptor tyrosine kinases (1, 2). The extracellular domains of these proteins contain two Ig-like motifs and two fibronectin type III motifs. This characteristic topology is also found in neural cell adhesion molecules and in receptor tyrosine phosphatases. The human Axl cDNA encodes an 887 amino acid (aa) precursor that includes an 18 aa signal sequence, a 426 aa extracellular domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 422 aa cytoplasmic domain. The extracellular domains of human and mouse Axl share 81% aa sequence identity. A short alternately spliced form of human Axl is distinguished by a 9 aa deletion in the extracellular juxtamembrane region. These receptors bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth arrest specific gene 6 (Gas6) which is structurally related to the anticoagulation factor protein S. Binding of Gas6 induces receptor autophosphorylation and downstream signaling pathways that can lead to cell proliferation, migration, or the prevention of apoptosis (3). This family of tyrosine kinase receptors is involved in hematopoiesis, embryonic development, tumorigenesis, and regulation of testicular functions.

  • References:
    1. Yanagita, M. (2004) Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 13:465.
    2. Nagata, K. et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 22:30022.
    3. Holland, S. et al. (2005) Canc. Res. 65:9294.
  • Long Name:
    Axl Receptor Tyrosine Kinase
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    558 (Human); 26362 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    Ark; AXL oncogene; AXL receptor tyrosine kinase; AXL transforming sequence/gene; Axl; EC 2.7.10; EC 2.7.10.1; JTK11; tyrosine-protein kinase receptor UFO; Ufo; UFOoncogene AXL
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

23 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. TAM Receptors Are Not Required for Zika Virus Infection in Mice
    Authors: AK Hastings, LJ Yockey, BW Jagger, J Hwang, R Uraki, HF Gaitsch, LA Parnell, B Cao, IU Mysorekar, CV Rothlin, E Fikrig, MS Diamond, A Iwasaki
    Cell Rep, 2017;19(3):558-568.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Culture Supernates
    Application: WB
  2. AXL-dependent infection of human fetal endothelial cells distinguishes Zika virus from other pathogenic flaviviruses
    Authors: AS Richard, BS Shim, YC Kwon, R Zhang, Y Otsuka, K Schmitt, F Berri, MS Diamond, H Choe
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A, 2017;114(8):2024-2029.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  3. Primary Human Placental Trophoblasts are Permissive for Zika Virus (ZIKV) Replication
    Authors: KM Aagaard, A Lahon, MA Suter, RP Arya, MD Seferovic, MB Vogt, M Hu, F Stossi, MA Mancini, RA Harris, M Kahr, C Eppes, M Rac, MA Belfort, CS Park, D Lacorazza, R Rico-Hesse
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(0):41389.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  4. The Gas6-Axl Protein Interaction Mediates Endothelial Uptake of Platelet Microparticles
    Authors: KE Happonen, S Tran, M Mörgelin, R Prince, S Calzavarin, A Angelillo-, B Dahlbäck
    J. Biol. Chem., 2016;291(20):10586-601.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  5. AXL modulates extracellular matrix protein expression and is essential for invasion and metastasis in endometrial cancer
    Authors: LM Divine, MR Nguyen, E Meller, RA Desai, B Arif, EB Rankin, KH Bligard, C Meyerson, IS Hagemann, M Massad, PH Thaker, AR Hagemann, CK McCourt, MA Powell, DG Mutch, KC Fuh
    Oncotarget, 2016;7(47):77291-77305.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC
  6. Implication of the Receptor Tyrosine Kinase AXL in Head and Neck Cancer Progression
    Int J Mol Sci, 2016;18(1):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Not Specified
  7. Zika virus cell tropism in the developing human brain and inhibition by azithromycin
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2016;113(50):14408-14413.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  8. ZEB1-mediated melanoma cell plasticity enhances resistance to MAPK inhibitors
    EMBO Mol Med, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  9. Clinical, Pathological, and Molecular Features of Lung Adenocarcinomas with AXL Expression
    Authors: K Sato, K Suda, S Shimizu, K Sakai, H Mizuuchi, K Tomizawa, T Takemoto, K Nishio, T Mitsudomi
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(4):e0154186.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  10. Cotargeting MNK and MEK kinases induces the regression of NF1-mutant cancers
    J Clin Invest, 2016;0(0):.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  11. The Axl-Regulating Tumor Suppressor miR-34a Is Increased in ccRCC but Does Not Correlate with Axl mRNA or Axl Protein Levels.
    Authors: Fritz H, Gustafsson A, Ljungberg B, Ceder Y, Axelson H, Dahlback B
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(8):e0135991.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
  12. MET and AXL inhibitor NPS-1034 exerts efficacy against lung cancer cells resistant to EGFR kinase inhibitors because of MET or AXL activation.
    Authors: Rho, Jin Kyun, Choi, Yun Jung, Kim, Seon Ye, Kim, Tae Won, Choi, Eun Kyun, Yoon, Seon-Joo, Park, Bu Man, Park, Eunhye, Bae, Jong Hwa, Choi, Chang-Mi, Lee, Jae Cheo
    Cancer Res, 2014;74(1):253-62.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  13. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor in Korean patients with lung cancer.
    Authors: Ji, Wonjun, Choi, Chang-Mi, Rho, Jin Kyun, Jang, Se Jin, Park, Young So, Chun, Sung-Min, Kim, Woo Sung, Lee, Jung-Shi, Kim, Sang-We, Lee, Dae Ho, Lee, Jae Cheo
    BMC Cancer, 2013;13(0):606.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  14. Identification of cell surface molecules involved in dystroglycan-independent Lassa virus cell entry.
    Authors: Shimojima M, Stroher U, Ebihara H, Feldmann H, Kawaoka Y
    J. Virol., 2012;86(4):2067-78.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
  15. Prolonged exposure to a Mer ligand in leukemia: Gas6 favors expression of a partial Mer glycoform and reveals a novel role for Mer in the nucleus.
    Authors: Migdall-Wilson J, Bates C, Schlegel J, Brandao L, Linger RM, Deryckere D, Graham DK
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(2):e31635.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  16. Cross-phosphorylation, signaling and proliferative functions of the Tyro3 and Axl receptors in Rat2 cells.
    Authors: Brown JE, Krodel M, Pazos M
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(5):e36800.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: IP
  17. Activation of the AXL kinase causes resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy in lung cancer.
    Authors: Zhang Z, Lee JC
    Nat. Genet., 2012;44(8):852-860.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: IP
  18. Identification of Axl as a downstream effector of TGF-beta1 during Langerhans cell differentiation and epidermal homeostasis.
    J. Exp. Med., 2012;209(11):2033-47.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  19. Increased secretion of Gas6 by smooth muscle cells in human atherosclerotic carotid plaques.
    Authors: Clauser S, Meilhac O, Bieche I, Raynal P, Bruneval P, Michel JB, Borgel D
    Thromb. Haemost., 2011;107(1):140-9.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  20. Pharmacoproteomics of a metalloproteinase hydroxamate inhibitor in breast cancer cells: dynamics of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-mediated membrane protein shedding.
    Authors: Butler GS, Dean RA, Tam EM, Overall CM
    Mol. Cell. Biol., 2008;28(15):4896-914.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  21. Auto-oxidation and oligomerization of protein S on the apoptotic cell surface is required for mer tyrosine kinase-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells.
    Authors: Uehara H, Shacter E
    J. Immunol., 2008;180(4):2522-30.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  22. Axl/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling inhibits mineral deposition by vascular smooth muscle cells.
    Authors: Collett GD, Sage AP, Kirton JP, Alexander MY, Gilmore AP, Canfield AE
    Circ. Res., 2007;100(4):502-9.
    Species: Bovine
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: IP
  23. Gas6 receptors Axl, Sky and Mer enhance platelet activation and regulate thrombotic responses.
    Authors: Gould WR, Baxi SM, Schroeder R, Peng YW, Leadley RJ, Peterson JT, Perrin LA
    J. Thromb. Haemost., 2005;3(4):733-41.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Flow
Expand to show all 23 Citations
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Average Rating: 4 (Based on 2 reviews)

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We have 2 reviews tested in 1 species: Human.
We have 2 reviews tested in 2 applications: Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence, Flow Cytometry.

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Images Ratings Applications Species Reviewed By Date Details
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Human Axl Antibody AF154
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Very Good
 ICC/IF Human Anonymous 06/22/2017
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Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence Human Axl Antibody AF154
Immunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence: Human Axl Antibody [AF154]

Summary

ApplicationImmunocytochemistry/Immunofluorescence
Sample TestedNeural progenitor cells
SpeciesHuman
Flow Cytometry Human Axl Antibody AF154
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Very Good
 Flow Human Anonymous 01/20/2017
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Flow Cytometry Human Axl Antibody AF154
Flow Cytometry: Human Axl Antibody [AF154]

Summary

ApplicationFlow Cytometry
Sample TestedAML cells
SpeciesHuman

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