Human GDF-15 Antibody Summary
Accession # Q99988
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
GDF‑15 in Human Placenta. GDF‑15 was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human placenta using Mouse Anti-Human GDF‑15 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB9572) at 5 µg/mL for 1 hour at room temperature followed by incubation with the Anti-Mouse IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001). Before incubation with the primary antibody, tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to syncytiotrophoblasts. View our protocol for IHC Staining with VisUCyte HRP Polymer Detection Reagents.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Growth Differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), also called Macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), placental transforming growth factor-beta, prostate-derived factor, and placental bone morphogenetic protein, is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta ) superfamily. GDF-15 is highly expressed in placenta and is expressed at lower levels in kidney, pancreas, prostate and colon. It is also widely expressed in brain. Similarly to other TGF-beta family proteins, GDF-15 is synthesized as a large precursor protein that is cleaved at the dibasic cleavage site (RXXR) to release the carboxy-terminal domain. The carboxy-terminal domain of GDF-15 contains the characteristic seven conserved cysteine residues necessary for the formation of the cysteine knot and the single interchain disulfide bond. Furthermore, the carboxy-terminal domain contains two additional cysteine residues that form a fourth intrachain disulfide bond. Biologically active GDF-15 is a disulfide-linked homodimer of the carboxy-terminal 112 amino acid residues. Mature human GDF-15 shares 66.1% and 68.7% amino acid sequence similarity with rat and mouse GDF-15, respectively, which are remarkably low homologies between species in TGF-beta superfamily. GDF-15 has been shown to have various functions, including inhibition of production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages, induction of cartilage formation, early-stage endochonadal bone formation, and promotion of neuronal survival.
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