Nitrotyrosine in Human PBMCs. |
Nitrotyrosine was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using 25 µg/mL Mouse Anti-Nitrotyrosine Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB3248) for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained with the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL007) and counterstained (green). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Detection of Nitrotyrosine by Western Blot. |
Western blot shows lysates of NIH‑3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line untreated (-) or treated (+) with 3 mM peroxynitrite, 3 mM inactivated peroxynitrite, or 100 μM peroxyvanadate for 1 hour and recombinant E. coli DNAK treated with 1 mM 4-hydroxynonenal or 1 mM peroxyynitrite for 1 hour. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Mouse Anti-Nitrotyrosine Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB3248), followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Mouse IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF007). The lysates were also probed with Phospho-Tyrosine Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB1676). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 3.
3-Nitrotyrosine is formed when tyrosine is reacted with peroxynitrite. Since peroxynitrite is formed from nitric oxide and superoxide anion, nitrotyrosine adducts on proteins have been used as markers of oxidative cellular damage and macrophage activation. Elevated nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity has been found in inflammation, osteoarthritis, neurodegenerative diseases, and ischemic damage to the heart and brain.
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