Equine IL-4 Antibody Summary
Accession # NP_001075988
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Equine IL-4 Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
IL‑4 in Equine PBMCs. IL-4 was detected in immersion fixed equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using Goat Anti-Equine IL-4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1809) at 10 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (yellow; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13-18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses (1-3). It is a glycosylated polypeptide that contains three intrachain disulfide bridges and adopts a bundled four alpha -helix structure (4). Equine IL-4 is synthesized with a 24 amino acid (aa) signal sequence. Mature equine IL-4 shares 53-60% aa sequence identity with bovine, goat, human, ovine, and porcine IL-4 and 38-40% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat IL-4. IL-4 exerts its effects through two receptor complexes (5, 6). The type I receptor, which is expressed on hematopoietic cells, is a heterodimer of the ligand binding IL-4 R alpha and the common gamma chain (a shared subunit of the receptors for IL-2, -7, -9, -15, and -21). The type II receptor on non-hematopoietic cells consists of IL-4 R alpha and IL-13 R alpha 1. The type II receptor also transduces IL-13 mediated signals. IL-4 is primarily expressed by Th2-biased CD4+ T cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils (1, 2). It promotes cell proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin class switch to IgE in B cells, acquisition of the Th2 phenotype by naïve CD4+ T cells, priming and chemotaxis of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and the proliferation and activation of epithelial cells (7-10). IL-4 plays a dominant role in the development of allergic inflammation and asthma (9, 11).
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- Redfield, C. et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30:11029.
- Mueller, T.D. et al. (2002) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1592:237.
- Nelms, K. et al. (1999) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:701.
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- Corthay, A. (2006) Scand. J. Immunol. 64:93.
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- Rosenberg, H.F. et al. (2007) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:1303.
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