Human CD28 Antibody Enhances IL-2 Secretion in Jurkat Cells.
Human CD28 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody enhances IL-2 secretion in Jurkat human acute T cell leukemia cell line stimulated with 10 ng/mL phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and 0.5 μM calcium ionophore, in a dose-dependent manner, as measured using the Quantikine Human IL-2 ELISA Kit (Catalog # D2050). The ED50 for this effect is typically 0.3‑0.6 μg/mL.
CD28 in Human PBMCs.
CD28 was detected in immersion fixed human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using 10 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human CD28 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF‑342‑PB) for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained with the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
CD28 and CTLA-4, together with their ligands, B7-1 and B7-2, constitute one of the dominant costimulatory pathways that regulate T and B cell responses. CD28 and CTLA-4 are structurally homologous molecules that are members of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene superfamily. Both CD28 and CTLA-4 are composed of a single Ig V‑like extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain and an intracellular domain. CD28 and CTLA-4 are both expressed on the cell surface as disulfide-linked homodimers or as monomers. The genes encoding these two molecules are closely linked on human chromosome 2 and mouse chromosome 1. Mouse CD28 is expressed constitutively on virtually 100% of mouse T cells and on developing thymocytes. Cell surface expression of mouse CD28 is down-regulated upon ligation of CD28 in the presence of PMA or PHA. In contrast, CTLA-4 is not expressed constitutively but is up-regulated rapidly following T cell activation and CD28 ligation. Cell surface expression of mouse CTLA-4 peaks approximately 48 hours after activation. Although both CTLA-4 and CD28 can bind to the same ligands, CTLA-4 binds to B7-1 and B7-2 with a 20-100 fold higher affinity than CD28. CD28/B7 interaction has been shown to prevent apoptosis of activated T cells via the upregulation of Bcl-xL. CD28 ligation has also been shown to regulate Th1/Th2 differentiation.
Lenschow, D.J. et al. (1996) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:233.
Hathcock, K.S. and R.J. Hodes (1996) Advances in Immunol. 62:131.
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