Detects human TGF-alpha in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 0.05% cross‑reactivity with recombinant human (rh) TGF‑ beta 1, rhAmphiregulin, rhBetacellulin, rhEGF, rhHRG-alpha, and rhSMDF is observed.
Polyclonal Goat IgG
E. coli-derived recombinant human TGF-alpha Val40-Ala89 Accession # P01135
Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
<0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
Human TGF‑ alpha Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog #
Recombinant Human TGF-alpha Protein, CF (Catalog #
Measured by its ability to neutralize TGF‑ alpha -induced proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.15-0.75 μg/mL in the presence of 3 ng/mL Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application.
are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by TGF‑ alpha and Neutralization by Human TGF‑ alpha Antibody.
Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha (Catalog # 239-A) stimulates proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha (3 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human TGF‑ alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-239-NA). The ND50 is typically 0.15‑0.75 μg/mL.
TGF‑ alpha in Human Astrocytoma.
TGF‑ alpha was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human astrocytoma using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human TGF‑ alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF‑239‑NA) overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
TGF-alpha in Human Astrocytoma.
TGF-alpha was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human astrocytoma using Goat Anti-Human TGF-alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-239-NA) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
Reconstitution Buffer Available
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
TGF-alpha was originally isolated from the conditioned media of oncogenically transformed cells as an EGF-like bioactivity. TGF-alpha is a member of the EGF family of cytokines that are synthesized as transmembrane precursors and are characterized by the presence of one or several EGF structural units in their extracellular domain. The soluble forms of these cytokines are released from the transmembrane protein by proteolytic cleavage. Membrane-bound proTGF-alpha is biologically active and seems to play a role in mediation of cell-cell adhesion and in juxtacrine stimulation of adjacent cells. Expression of TGF-alpha is widespread in tumors and transformed cells. TGF-alpha is also expressed in normal tissues during embryogenesis and in adult tissues, including pituitary, brain, keratinocytes and macrophages. Mature TGF-alpha shows approximately 93% amino acid sequence identity with mouse or rat TGF-alpha and is not species specific in its biological effects.
TGF-alpha binds to the EGF receptor and activates the receptor tyrosine kinase. Accordingly, TGF-alpha shows a similar potency to EGF as a mitogen for fibroblasts and as an inducer of epithelial development in vivo. TGF-alpha is reportedly more potent than EGF as an angiogenic factor in vivo and as a stimulator for keratinocyte migration. The EGF receptor gene represents the cellular homologue of the avian v-erb-B oncogene.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.