Human TGF-alpha Antibody

(13 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human TGF-alpha in ELISAs and Western blots. In sandwich immunoassays, less than 0.05% cross‑reactivity with recombinant human (rh) TGF‑ beta 1, rhAmphiregulin, rhBetacellulin, rhEGF, rhHRG-alpha, and rhSMDF is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant human TGF-alpha
    Val40-Ala89
    Accession # P01135
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Human TGF-alpha (Catalog # 239-A)
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
    • Human TGF-alpha Sandwich Immunoassay
      Reagent
  • ELISA Capture (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.2-0.8 µg/mL 
    Human TGF‑ alpha Antibody (Catalog # AF-239-NA)
  • ELISA Detection (Matched Antibody Pair)
    0.1-0.4 µg/mL 
    Human TGF‑ alpha Biotinylated Antibody (Catalog # BAF239)
  • ELISA Standard
     
    Recombinant Human TGF-alpha Protein, CF (Catalog # 239-A)
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize TGF‑ alpha -induced proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.15-0.75 μg/mL in the presence of 3 ng/mL Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Cell Proliferation Induced by TGF‑ alpha  and Neutralization by Human TGF‑ alpha  Antibody.

Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha (Catalog # 239-A) stimulates proliferation in the Balb/3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Human TGF‑ alpha (3 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Human TGF‑ alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-239-NA). The ND50 is typically 0.15‑0.75 μg/mL.

Immunohistochemistry
TGF‑ alpha in Human Astrocytoma. TGF‑ alpha was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human astrocytoma using 15 µg/mL Goat Anti-Human TGF‑ alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF‑239‑NA) overnight at 4 °C. Before incubation with the primary antibody tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). Tissue was stained with the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Immunohistochemistry
TGF-alpha in Human Astrocytoma. TGF-alpha was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human astrocytoma using Goat Anti-Human TGF-alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF-239-NA) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TGF-alpha

TGF-alpha was originally isolated from the conditioned media of oncogenically transformed cells as an EGF-like bioactivity. TGF-alpha is a member of the EGF family of cytokines that are synthesized as transmembrane precursors and are characterized by the presence of one or several EGF structural units in their extracellular domain. The soluble forms of these cytokines are released from the transmembrane protein by proteolytic cleavage. Membrane-bound proTGF-alpha is biologically active and seems to play a role in mediation of cell-cell adhesion and in juxtacrine stimulation of adjacent cells. Expression of TGF-alpha is widespread in tumors and transformed cells. TGF-alpha is also expressed in normal tissues during embryogenesis and in adult tissues, including pituitary, brain, keratinocytes and macrophages. Mature TGF-alpha  shows approximately 93% amino acid sequence identity with mouse or rat TGF-alpha and is not species specific in its biological effects.

TGF-alpha binds to the EGF receptor and activates the receptor tyrosine kinase. Accordingly, TGF-alpha shows a similar potency to EGF as a mitogen for fibroblasts and as an inducer of epithelial development in vivo. TGF-alpha is reportedly more potent than EGF as an angiogenic factor in vivo and as a stimulator for keratinocyte migration. The EGF receptor gene represents the cellular homologue of the avian v-erb-B oncogene.

  • Long Name:
    Transforming Growth Factor alpha
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7039 (Human)
  • Alternate Names:
    protransforming growth factor alpha; TFGA; TGFA; TGFalpha; TGF-alpha; transforming growth factor, alpha; transforming growth factor-alpha
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

13 Citations: Showing 1 - 10
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Temporal expression of growth factors triggered by epiregulin regulates inflammation development.
    Authors: Harada M, Kamimura D, Arima Y, Kohsaka H, Nakatsuji Y, Nishida M, Atsumi T, Meng J, Bando H, Singh R, Sabharwal L, Jiang J, Kumai N, Miyasaka N, Sakoda S, Yamauchi-Takihara K, Ogura H, Hirano T, Murakami M
    J Immunol, 2015;194(3):1039-46.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Paraffin-embedded
  2. Amphiregulin carboxy-terminal domain is required for autocrine keratinocyte growth.
    Authors: Stoll SW, Johnson JL, Li Y, Rittie L, Elder JT
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2010;130(8):2031-40.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  3. Association of tetraspanin CD9 with transmembrane TGFalpha confers alterations in cell-surface presentation of TGFalpha and cytoskeletal organization.
    Authors: Imhof I, Gasper WJ, Derynck R
    J. Cell. Sci., 2008;121(0):2265-74.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: IP
  4. The luteinizing hormone receptor-activated extracellularly regulated kinase-1/2 cascade stimulates epiregulin release from granulosa cells.
    Authors: Andric N, Ascoli M,
    Endocrinology, 2008;149(11):5549-56.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  5. Development and validation of sandwich ELISA microarrays with minimal assay interference.
    Authors: Gonzalez RM, Seurynck-Servoss SL, Crowley SA
    J. Proteome Res., 2008;7(6):2406-14.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Serum
    Application: ELISA Microarray Development
  6. EGFR signaling is required for TGF-beta 1 mediated COX-2 induction in human bronchial epithelial cells.
    Authors: Liu M, Yang SC, Sharma S, Luo J, Cui X, Peebles KA, Huang M, Sato M, Ramirez RD, Shay JW, Minna JD, Dubinett SM
    Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 2007;37(5):578-88.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  7. Epidermal growth factor-like growth factors prevent apoptosis of alcohol-exposed human placental cytotrophoblast cells.
    Authors: Wolff GS, Chiang PJ, Smith SM, Romero R, Armant DR
    Biol. Reprod., 2007;77(1):53-60.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  8. Expression and role of EGFR ligands induced in airway cells by PM2.5 and its components.
    Authors: Rumelhard M, Ramgolam K, Hamel R, Marano F, Baeza-Squiban A
    Eur. Respir. J., 2007;30(6):1064-73.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  9. The response of human epithelial cells to TNF involves an inducible autocrine cascade.
    Authors: Janes KA, Gaudet S, Albeck JG, Nielsen UB, Lauffenburger DA, Sorger PK
    Cell, 2006;124(6):1225-39.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
  10. Transforming growth factor-alpha: a major human serum factor that promotes human keratinocyte migration.
    Authors: Li Y, Fan J, Chen M, Li W, Woodley DT
    J. Invest. Dermatol., 2006;126(9):2096-105.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Serum
    Application: Immunodepletion
  11. Mek1 alters epidermal growth and differentiation.
    Authors: Scholl FA, Dumesic PA
    Cancer Res., 2004;64(17):6035-40.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Tissue Homogenates
    Application: WB
  12. Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor regulates human extravillous cytotrophoblast development during conversion to the invasive phenotype.
    Authors: Leach RE, Kilburn B, Wang J, Liu Z, Romero R, Armant DR
    Dev. Biol., 2004;266(2):223-37.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  13. Autocrine extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in normal human keratinocytes: metalloproteinase-mediated release of amphiregulin triggers signaling from ErbB1 to ERK.
    Authors: Kansra S, Johnson JL
    Mol. Biol. Cell, 2004;15(9):4299-309.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: Neut
Expand to show all 13 Citations
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