Human VEGF-C Antibody AF752: R&D Systems

Human VEGF-C Antibody

(9 citations)   
  • Species Reactivity
    Human
  • Specificity
    Detects human VEGF-C in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, less than 1% cross-reactivity with recombinant human (rh) VEGF-D and rhVEGF-A is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant human VEGF-C
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    1 µg/mL
    See below
  • Immunohistochemistry
    5-15 µg/mL
    See below
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Detection of Human VEGF‑C by Western Blot. Western blot shows lysates of K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. PVDF membrane was probed with 1 µg/mL of Goat Anti-Human VEGF‑C Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF752) followed by HRP-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (Catalog # HAF017). Specific bands were detected for VEGF‑C at approximately 52 kDa, 34 kDa, and 13 kDa (as indicated). This experiment was conducted under reducing conditions and using Immunoblot Buffer Group 1.
Immunohistochemistry
VEGF-C in Human Colon Cancer Tissue. VEGF-C was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human colon cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human VEGF-C Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF752) at 10 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue).Specific labeling was localized to stromal cells surrounding crypts in the colon mucosa (cross section across crypts). View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Immunohistochemistry
VEGF-C in Human Colon Cancer Tissue. VEGF-C was detected in immersion fixed paraffin-embedded sections of human colon cancer tissue using Goat Anti-Human VEGF-C Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF752) at 15 µg/mL overnight at 4 °C. Tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (brown; Catalog # CTS008) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific labeling was localized to epithelial cells in crypts of the colon mucusa (longitudinal section of crypts). Lower panel shows a lack of labeling if primary antibodies are omitted and tissue is stained only with secondary antibody followed by incubation with detection reagents. View our protocol for Chromogenic IHC Staining of Paraffin-embedded Tissue Sections.
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: VEGF-C

Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) and VEGF-D constitute a VEGF sub-family that share the conserved VEGF homology domain (VHD) with other VEGF family members but are distinguished by their preferential formation of non-covalent homodimers. Both VEGF-C and -D have long N- and C-terminal propeptide extensions. The VEGF-C propeptide undergoes stepwise proteolytic processing to generate ligands with increasing affinity for VEGF-R3. However, only the fully processed VEGF-C containing just the VHD can bind VEGF-R2. None of the VEGF-C forms have appreciable affinity for VEGF-R1. VEGF-C is expressed in multiple adult human tissues, most prominently in lymph nodes, heart, placenta, ovary, and small intestine. Traces of VEGF-C are also detected in brain, liver, thymus, skeletal muscles, spleen, prostate, testis and colon. Unlike other VEGF family members, VEGF-C expression is not regulated by hypoxia. VEGF-C is a lymphangiogenic growth factor and the VEGF-C/VEGF-R3 signaling pathway has been shown to be crucial for lymphangiogenesis. VEGF-C and VEGF-R3 are usually co-expressed at sites with lymphatic vessel sprouting, in the embryo, and in various pathological conditions. VEGF-C stimulates lymphangiogenesis in the avian chorioallantoic membrane model. Over-expression of VEGF-C in breast cancer cells has been shown to increase intratumoral lymphangiogenesis, resulting in enhanced metastasis to regional lymph nodes and to the lungs. Mouse tumors expressing elevated levels of VEGF-C have increased lymphatic metastasis and increased lymphatic surface area in the tumor margin. VEGF-C is also associated with lymph node metastasis of colorectal carcinoma. Besides lymphangiogenesis, VEGF-C can have potent effects on physiological angiogenesis through its interaction with VEGF R2. The protein can stimulate migration and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo and has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis in the mouse cornea and in rabbit hind limb ischaemia.

  • Long Name:
    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7424 (Human); 22341 (Mouse)
  • Alternate Names:
    Flt4 ligand; Flt4-L; vascular endothelial growth factor C; Vascular endothelial growth factor-related protein; VEGFC; VEGF-C; VRPFLT4 ligand DHM
Related Research Areas
Citations:

R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.

9 Citations: Showing 1 - 9
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Species
Applications
Sample Type
  1. Synaptonemal complex protein 3 is associated with lymphangiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer patients with lymph node metastasis
    Authors: H Kitano, JY Chung, KH Noh, YH Lee, TW Kim, SH Lee, SH Eo, HJ Cho, CH Choi, S Inoue, J Hanaoka, J Fukuoka, SM Hewitt
    J Transl Med, 2017;15(1):138.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  2. Efficient activation of the lymphangiogenic growth factor VEGF-C requires the C-terminal domain of VEGF-C and the N-terminal domain of CCBE1
    Authors: SK Jha, K Rauniyar, T Karpanen, VM Leppänen, P Brouillard, M Vikkula, K Alitalo, M Jeltsch
    Sci Rep, 2017;7(1):4916.
    Species: Primate - Chlorocebus aethiops (African Green Monkey)
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  3. A phase Ib/II translational study of sunitinib with neoadjuvant radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma.
    Authors: Lewin J, Khamly K, Young R, Mitchell C, Hicks R, Toner G, Ngan S, Chander S, Powell G, Herschtal A, Te Marvelde L, Desai J, Choong P, Stacker S, Achen M, Ferris N, Fox S, Slavin J, Thomas D
    Br J Cancer, 2014;111(12):2254-61.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC
  4. Lysophosphatidic Acid Enhances Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-C Expression in Human Prostate Cancer PC-3 Cells.
    Authors: Lin CE, Chen SU, Lin CC
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(7):e41096.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  5. Dilated thin-walled blood and lymphatic vessels in human endometrium: a potential role for VEGF-D in progestin-induced break-through bleeding.
    Authors: Donoghue JF, McGavigan CJ, Lederman FL
    PLoS ONE, 2012;7(2):e30916.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  6. Autocrine loop between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C and VEGF receptor-3 positively regulates tumor-associated lymphangiogenesis in oral squamoid cancer cells.
    Authors: Matsuura M, Onimaru M, Yonemitsu Y, Suzuki H, Nakano T, Ishibashi H, Shirasuna K, Sueishi K
    Am. J. Pathol., 2009;175(4):1709-21.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Whole Cells
    Application: ICC
  7. Lymphatic reprogramming of microvascular endothelial cells by CEA-related cell adhesion molecule-1 via interaction with VEGFR-3 and Prox1.
    Authors: Kilic N, Oliveira-Ferrer L, Neshat-Vahid S, Irmak S, Obst-Pernberg K, Wurmbach JH, Loges S, Kilic E, Weil J, Lauke H, Tilki D, Singer BB, Ergun S
    Blood, 2007;110(13):4223-33.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
  8. VEGF-C is a trophic factor for neural progenitors in the vertebrate embryonic brain.
    Authors: Le Bras B, Barallobre MJ, Homman-Ludiye J, Ny A, Wyns S, Tammela T, Haiko P, Karkkainen MJ, Yuan L, Muriel MP, Chatzopoulou E, Breant C, Zalc B, Carmeliet P, Alitalo K, Eichmann A, Thomas JL
    Nat. Neurosci., 2006;9(3):340-8.
    Species: Mouse
    Sample Type: Whole Tissue
    Application: IHC Frozen
  9. Cyclooxygenase-2 induces EP1- and HER-2/Neu-dependent vascular endothelial growth factor-C up-regulation: a novel mechanism of lymphangiogenesis in lung adenocarcinoma.
    Authors: Su JL, Shih JY, Yen ML, Jeng YM, Chang CC, Hsieh CY, Wei LH, Yang PC, Kuo ML
    Cancer Res., 2004;64(2):554-64.
    Species: Human
    Sample Type: Cell Lysates
    Application: WB
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