Cotton Rat TNF-alpha Antibody

  
  • Species Reactivity
    Cotton Rat
  • Specificity
    Detects cotton rat TNF-alpha in direct ELISAs and Western blots. In direct ELISAs, greater than 50% cross-reactivity with recombinant mouse TNF-alpha is observed, approximately 30% cross-reactivity with recombinant rat TNF-alpha is observed, 20% cross-reactivity with recombinant human TNF-alpha is observed, and 5% cross-reactivity with recombinant porcine TNF-alpha is observed.
  • Source
    Polyclonal Goat IgG
  • Purification
    Antigen Affinity-purified
  • Immunogen
    E. coli-derived recombinant cotton rat TNF-alpha
    Leu1-Leu156
    Accession # AAL18818
  • Formulation
    Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 µm filtered solution in PBS.
  • Endotoxin Level
    <0.10 EU per 1 μg of the antibody by the LAL method.
  • Label
    Unconjugated
Applications
  •  
    Recommended
    Concentration
    Sample
  • Western Blot
    0.1 µg/mL
    Recombinant Cotton Rat TNF‑ alpha (Catalog # 1011-CR)
  • Neutralization
    Measured by its ability to neutralize TNF‑ alpha -induced cytotoxicity in the L‑929 mouse fibroblast cell line. Matthews, N. and M. L. Neale (1987) in Lymphokines and Interferons, A Practical Approach. Clemens, M. J. et al. (eds): IRL Press. 221. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 0.01-0.05 µg/mL in the presence of 1 ng/mL Recombinant Cotton Rat TNF‑ alpha and 1 µg/mL actinomycin D.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Data Examples
Cytotoxicity Induced by TNF‑ alpha and Neutralization by Cotton Rat TNF‑ alpha Antibody. Recombinant Cotton Rat TNF‑ alpha (Catalog # 1011-CR) induces cytotoxicity in the the L‑929 mouse fibroblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line), as measured by crystal violet staining. Cytotoxicity elicited by Recombinant Cotton Rat TNF‑ alpha (1 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Goat Anti-Cotton Rat TNF‑ alpha Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF1011). The ND50 is typically 0.01-0.05 µg/mL in the presence of the metabolic inhibitor actinomycin D (1 µg/mL).
Preparation and Storage
  • Reconstitution
    Reconstitute at 0.2 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
  • Shipping
    The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
  • Stability & Storage
    Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
    • 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
    • 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
    • 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Background: TNF-alpha

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha ) also known as cachectin and TNFSF2, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-alpha is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types (1, 2). The 156 amino acid (aa) cotton rat TNF-alpha is homologous to a portion of the extracellular domain (ECD) of TNF-alpha from other species (3). It shares 64%‑76% aa sequence identity with bovine, canine, equine, feline, human, mouse, porcine, rat, and rhesus TNF-alpha. The 26 kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer (4). Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte costimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness (5). Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-alpha by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55 kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-alpha (6, 7). TNF-alpha trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 8). TNF-alpha regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis (2). It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages (2). TNF-alpha is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders (9). It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism (10, 11).

  • References:
    1. Idriss, H.T. and J.H. Naismith (2000) Microsc. Res. Tech. 50:184.
    2. Hehlgans, T. and K. Pfeffer (2005) Immunology 115:1.
    3. Blanco, J.C. et al. (2004) J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 24:21.
    4. Tang, P. et al. (1996) Biochemistry 35:8216.
    5. Eissner G. et al. (2004) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 15:353.
    6. Black, R.A. et al. (1997) Nature 385:729.
    7. Moss, M.L. et al. (1997) Nature 385:733.
    8. Loetscher, H. et al. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266:18324.
    9. Clark, I.A. (2007) Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 18:335.
    10. Romanatto, T. et al. (2007) Peptides 28:1050.
    11. Hector, J. et al. (2007) Horm. Metab. Res. 39:250.
  • Long Name:
    Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
  • Entrez Gene IDs:
    7124 (Human); 21926 (Mouse); 24835 (Rat); 397086 (Porcine); 280943 (Bovine); 403922 (Canine); 100033834 (Equine); 493755 (Feline); 100009088 (Rabbit)
  • Alternate Names:
    APC1 protein; Cachectin; Cachetin; DIF; TNF; TNF, monocyte-derived; tnfa; tnf-a; TNFalpha; TNF-alpha; TNF-alphacachectin; TNFATNF, macrophage-derived; TNFSF1A; TNFSF2; TNFSF2TNF superfamily, member 2; tumor necrosis factor (TNF superfamily, member 2); tumor necrosis factor alpha; Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 2; tumor necrosis factor; tumor necrosis factor-alpha
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