Porcine IL-4 Antibody Summary
Accession # Q04745
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Porcine IL-4 Sandwich Immunoassay
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Cell Proliferation Induced by IL‑4 and Neutralization by Porcine IL‑4 Antibody. Recombinant Porcine IL-4 (Catalog # 654-P4) stimulates proliferation in the TF-1 human erythroleukemic cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Proliferation elicited by Recombinant Porcine IL-4 (2 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concen-trations of Porcine IL-4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF654). The ND50 is typically 1-5 µg/mL.
IL‑4 in Porcine PBMCs. IL-4 was detected in immersion fixed porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using Goat Anti-Porcine IL-4 Antigen Affinity-purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF654) at 5 µg/mL for 3 hours at room temperature. Cells were stained using the NorthernLights™ 557-conjugated Anti-Goat IgG Secondary Antibody (red; Catalog # NL001) and counterstained with DAPI (blue). Specific staining was localized to cytoplasm. View our protocol for Fluorescent ICC Staining of Non-adherent Cells.
Preparation and Storage
- 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
- 1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
- 6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
Interleukin-4 (IL-4), also known as B cell-stimulatory factor-1, is a monomeric, approximately 13-18 kDa Th2 cytokine that shows pleiotropic effects during immune responses (1‑3). It is a glycosylated polypeptide that contains three intrachain disulfide bridges and adopts a bundled four alpha -helix structure (4). Porcine IL-4 is synthesized with a 24 amino acid (aa) signal sequence. Mature porcine IL-4 shares 78%, 59%, 41%, and 41% aa sequence identity with bovine, human, mouse, and rat IL-4, respectively. Human IL-4 is active on porcine vascular endothelial cells (5). IL-4 exerts its effects through two receptor complexes (6, 7). The type I receptor, which is expressed on hematopoietic cells, is a heterodimer of the ligand binding IL-4 R alpha and the common gamma chain (a shared subunit of the receptors for IL-2, -7, -9, -15, and -21). The type II receptor on non-hematopoietic cells consists of IL-4 R alpha and IL-13 R alpha 1. The type II receptor also transduces IL-13 mediated signals. IL-4 is primarily expressed by Th2-biased CD4+ T cells, mast cells, basophils, and eosinophils (1, 2). It promotes cell proliferation, survival, and immunoglobulin class switch to IgE in B cells, acquisition of the Th2 phenotype by naïve CD4+ T cells, priming and chemotaxis of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils, and the proliferation and activation of epithelial cells (8, 11). IL-4 plays a dominant role in the development of allergic inflammation and asthma (10, 12).
- Benczik, M. and S.L. Gaffen (2004) Immunol. Invest. 33:109.
- Chomarat, P. and J. Banchereau (1998) Int. Rev. Immunol. 17:1.
- Bailey, M. et al. (1993) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1171:328.
- Redfield, C. et al. (1991) Biochemistry 30:11029.
- Stocker, C.J. et al. (2000) J. Immunol. 164:3309.
- Mueller, T.D. et al. (2002) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1592:237.
- Nelms, K. et al. (1999) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 17:701.
- Paludan, S.R. (1998) Scand. J. Immunol. 48:459.
- Corthay, A. (2006) Scand. J. Immunol. 64:93.
- Ryan, J.J. et al. (2007) Crit. Rev. Immunol. 27:15.
- Grone, A. (2002) Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 88:1.
- Rosenberg, H.F. et al. (2007) J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 119:1303.
Citations for Porcine IL-4 Antibody
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products. The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed, but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Citations: Showing 1 - 4
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Development and validation of a multiplex fluorescent microsphere immunoassay assay for detection of porcine cytokines
Authors: SA Hall, SH Ison, C Owles, J Coe, DA Sandercock, AJ Zanella
Sample Types: Tissue Homogenates
Applications: ELISA Capture
Protective Role of Passively Transferred Maternal Cytokines against Bordetella pertussis Infection in Newborn Piglets
Authors: S Elahi, DR Thompson, J Van Kessel, LA Babiuk, V Gerdts
Infect. Immun., 2017;85(4):.
Sample Types: Serum
Applications: ELISA Development (Capture)
Anti-inflammatory activity of nanocrystalline silver-derived solutions in porcine contact dermatitis.
Authors: Nadworny PL, Wang J, Tredget EE
J Inflamm (Lond), 2010;7(0):13.
Sample Types: Whole Tissue
Cytokine responses in gnotobiotic pigs after infection with virulent or attenuated human rotavirus.
Authors: Azevedo MS, Yuan L, Pouly S, Gonzales AM, Jeong KI, Nguyen TV, Saif LJ
J. Virol., 2006;80(1):372-82.
Sample Types: Whole Cells
Applications: ELISpot Development
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