Measured by its ability to neutralize BMP‑4-induced alkaline phosphatase production in the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line. Katagiri, T. et al. (1994) J. Cell Biol. 127:1755. The Neutralization Dose (ND50) is typically 1-3 µg/mL in the presence of 500 ng/mL Recombinant Human BMP‑4 and 2 µg/mL heparin.
Please Note: Optimal dilutions should be determined by each laboratory for each application. General Protocols are available in the Technical Information section on our website.
Alkaline Phosphatase Production Induced by BMP‑4 and Neutralization by Human BMP‑4 Antibody. Recombinant Human BMP‑4 (Catalog # 314-BP) induces alkaline phosphatase production in the the C2C12 mouse myoblast cell line in a dose-dependent manner (orange line). Alkaline phosphatase production elicited by Recombinant Human BMP‑4 (500 ng/mL) is neutralized (green line) by increasing concentrations of Human BMP‑4 Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB757). The ND50 is typically 1-3 µg/mL in the presence of heparin (2 µg/mL).
Preparation and Storage
Reconstitute at 0.5 mg/mL in sterile PBS.
The product is shipped at ambient temperature. Upon receipt, store it immediately at the temperature recommended below. *Small pack size (SP) is shipped with polar packs. Upon receipt, store it immediately at -20 to -70 °C
Stability & Storage
Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles.
12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 °C as supplied.
1 month, 2 to 8 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
6 months, -20 to -70 °C under sterile conditions after reconstitution.
BMP4 is a TGF beta superfamily ligand that is widely expressed from early embryogenesis through adulthood. It plays an important role in mesenchyme formation, epidermal determination, suppression of neural induction, the development of multiple organs, and tissue repair (1 5). The human BMP4 precursor contains a 273 amino acid (aa) propeptide and a 116 aa mature protein (6). Processing of the propeptide by furin or proprotein convertase 6 enables the formation of the mature disulfidelinked homodimeric BMP4 and facilitates its secretion. Similar intracellular processes may lead to the formation and recreation of BMP4/BMP7 disulfidelinked heterodimer (7 9). Mature human and mouse BMP4 share 98% aa sequence identity. Human BMP4 shares 85% aa sequence identity with human BMP2 and less than 50% with other human BMPs. Compared to BMP4 homodimers, BMP4/ BMP7 heterodimers exhibit a greater potency in inducing osteogenic differentiation (9). In Xenopus, the heterodimers can also induce the formation of mesoderm, whereas BMP4 homodimers only provide ventralizing signals for existing mesoderm (10). BMP4 signals through tetrameric complexes composed of type I (primarily Activin RIA or BMPRIA) and type II (primarily Activin RIIA or BMPRII) receptors (11, 12). The bioavailability of BMP4 is regulated by its interaction with multiple proteins and glycosaminoglycan (13 - 15).
Zhang, P. et al., 2008, Blood 111:1933.
Gambaro, K. et al., 2006, Cell Death Differ. 13:1075.
Simic, P. and Vukicevic, S., 2005, Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 16:299.
Sadlon, T.J. et al., 2004, Stem Cells 22:457.
Frank, D.B. et al., 2005, Circ. Res. 97:496.
Wozney, J. et al., 1988, Science 242:1528.
Cui, Y. et al., 1998, EMBO J. 17:4735.
Cui, Y. et al., 2001, Genes Dev. 15:2797.
Aono, A. et al., 1995, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 210:670.
Nishimatsu, S. and G.H. Thomsen, 1998, Mech. Dev. 74:75.
Chen, D. et al., 2004, Growth Factors 22:233.
Lavery, K. et al., 2008, J. Biol. Chem. 283:20948.
Rosen, V., 2006, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1068:19.
Jones, C.M. and J.C. Smith, 1998, Dev. Biol. 194:12.
Takada, T. et al., 2003, J. Biol. Chem. 278:43229.
R&D Systems personnel manually curate a database that contains references using R&D Systems products.
The data collected includes not only links to publications in PubMed,
but also provides information about sample types, species, and experimental conditions.
Submit a review and receive a $25US/€18/£15/$25CAN amazon gift card if you include an image - $10US/€7/£6/$10CAN Amazon card for reviews without an image. Limited to verified customers in USA, Canada and Europe.