Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) in the Akt Pathway
Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are widely expressed transmembrane proteins that act as receptors for growth factors, neurotrophic factors, and other extracellular signaling molecules. Upon ligand binding, they undergo tyrosine phosphorylation at specific residues in the cytoplasmic tail. This leads to the binding of protein substrates and/or the establishment of docking sites for adaptor proteins involved in RTK-mediated signal transduction. The RTKs listed below have been associated with activation of the Akt signaling pathway, which promotes cell growth, survival, and proliferation. Due to these downstream effects, unregulated activation of RTKs can lead to cancer. Highlighting the significant role RTKs can have in cancer, small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors are commonly used in cancer therapy.