Antibodies for Investigating SARS-CoV-2 Recognition by Host Cells

SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is a complex process that involves recognition of the host entry receptor, ACE-2, by its receptor binding domain (RBD) and then fusion of the viral and cell membranes. These steps are key factors that determine the host species range for SARS-CoV-2, as well as its ability to transfer between species. As such, molecules involved in viral recognition has been a major focus for SARS-CoV-2 research and drug development. R&D Systems offers highly validated and specific antibodies directed against virus and host cell molecules involved in viral infection for use in SARS-CoV-2 virus research and vaccine development.

For antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 viral recognition that might not be covered by the R&D Systems range of antibodies, such as heparan sulfate and TMPRSS2, visit the Novus Biologicals site to view their tools for COVID-19 research, or contact our Custom Services to find out how we can help you.

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Antibodies to Key Coronavirus Proteins

Spike Protein

The spike (S) protein on SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for infection of host cells by the virus. Its extracellular domain is composed of two different subunits: a S1 and a S2 subunit. The S1 subunit contains the RBD, which recognizes and binds to its entry receptor, ACE-2, on host cells. The SARS-CoV-2 S2 subunit is responsible for fusing the viral cell membrane with the host cell membrane. 

 

Select R&D Systems™ Anti- SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibodies
Antibody Catalog # Clone Applications Other Information
MAB10540 1034522 WB  
MAB105401 1034515 SW, WB  
MAB105801 1035419 B/N  
MAB105802 1035423 B/N, IHC  
LMAB10541

VHH72

B/N, ELISA Llamabody-Camelid Antibody
Select R&D Systems Anti-Spike S1 Subunit Antibodies
Clone Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
1035206 MAB105403 CyTOF, Flow, IHC, WB Yes
1035224 MAB105405 B/N No
Select R&D Systems Anti-Spike S2 Subunit Antibodies
Clone Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
1034617 MAB10557 SW, WB No

View all SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD, Spike S1 Subunit and Spike S2 Subunit antibodies.

 

Nucleocapsid Protein

The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein is highly immunogenic and expressed in the cytoplasm. Detection of this protein is commonly used to confirm the presence of the virus. Additionally, the N protein is thought to be involved in regulating the virus life cycle. Research has suggested that the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 is responsible for forming biomolecular condensates, thereby regulating the virus life cycle and infection.

Select R&D Systems Anti-Nucleocapsid Antibodies
Clone Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
1035111 MAB10474 IHC, WB No
1035145 MAB104741 IHC, WB No

View all SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibodies.

 

SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Protein Binding to ACE-2-Transfected Human Cell Line is Blocked by SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Antibody. In a functional flow cytometry test, Recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD His-Tagged Protein (Catalog # 10500-CV) binds to the HEK293 human embryonic kidney cell line transfected with recombinant human ACE-2 and eGFP. Binding is blocked by a Mouse Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Monoclonal Antibody (A; Catalog # MAB105802) but not by a Mouse IgG2A Isotype Control (B; Catalog # MAB003). Protein binding was detected with an APC-Conjugated Mouse Anti-His Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # IC050A). All cited reagents are from R&D Systems.

R&D Systems SARS-CoV-2 spike RBD antibody blocks SARS-CoV-2 binding to ACE-2.

 

Detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Protein in SARS-CoV-2 Infected Human Lung. The SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was detected in immersion-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of SARS-CoV-2 infected human lung (left, positive staining) and normal human lung (right, negative control) using a Mouse Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # MAB10474), followed by incubation with the Anti-Mouse IgG VisUCyte™ HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC001). Before incubation with the primary antibody, the tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). The tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to SARS-CoV-2 infected cells. All cited reagents are from R&D Systems.

R&D Systems SARS-CoV-2 Nucleocapsid antibody detects SARS-CoV-2 in human lung.

 

Antibodies to Key Host Cell Proteins

ACE-2

ACE-2 is a ubiquitously expressed type I membrane glycoprotein and zinc metalloprotease that regulates the ACE/RAS pathway by degrading Angiotensin II. ACE-2 has been shown to be the entry receptor for SARS-CoV-2.

Select R&D Systems Anti-ACE-2 Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
535919 Human, Rat, Hamster MAB9332 CyTOF, Flow, IHC Yes
171606 Human, Hamster MAB933 IHC, WB No
Polyclonal Human, Mouse, Rat, Hamster AF933 B/N, Flow, IHC, IP, SW, WB Yes
Polyclonal Mouse AF3437 Flow, IHC, IP, SW, WB No

View all ACE-2 antibodies.

 

DPPIV/CD26

DPPIV/CD26 is a serine exopeptidase that is expressed on the surface of a wide variety of cell types. It plays a role in many biological and pathological processes including T cell activation and proliferation. Research has proposed that DPPIV/CD26 may be a potential receptor for SARS-CoV-2 as it is the main entry receptor for the MERS coronavirus, and structural studies have suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein could directly interact with it. However, DDPIV/CD26 has yet to be shown to be a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2.

R&D Systems Anti-DPPIV/CD26 Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
222113 Human MAB1180 CyTOF, ELISA, Flow, WB Yes
Polyclonal Human AF1180 ICC, IHC, SW, WB Yes
155202 Mouse MAB9541 CyTOF, Flow Yes
Polyclonal Mouse AF954 IHC, SW, WB Yes

View all DPPIV/CD26 antibodies.

 

Cathepsin B/L

Cathepsin B and Cathepsin L are endosomal cysteine proteases that facilitate SARS-CoV-2 infection of host cells. SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells requires two separate cleavage events of its S protein. Cathepsins B/L are responsible for the second proteolytic event, which occurs within the S2 subunit, that unmasks the viral fusion peptide and allows for membrane fusion.

R&D Systems Anti-Cathepsin B Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
173317 Human, Mouse MAB965 WB No
Polyclonal Human AF953 IHC, IP, SW, WB Yes
Polyclonal Mouse AF965 B/N, IHC, WB Yes
R&D Systems Anti-Cathepsin L Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
204101 Human, Mouse MAB9521 IHC, IP, WB No
Polyclonal Human AF952 ELISA, IHC, IP, WB Yes
Polyclonal Mouse, Rat AF1515 IHC, SW, WB Yes

View all Cathepsin B and Cathepsin L antibodies.

 

CEACAM-1/CD66a

CEACAM-1/CD66a is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein involved in intracellular adhesion. It has been shown to be the receptor of the mouse hepatitis virus, a murine coronavirus, and can regulate virus induced CD8+ T cell functions. CEACAM-1/CD66a is expressed in airway epithelium and research has shown that tyrosine kinase inhibitors, one proposed treatment for COVID-19, downregulates CEACAM-1/CD66a gene expression.

R&D Systems Anti-CEACAM-1/CD66a Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
283340 Human MAB2244 CyTOF, Flow, WB Yes
Polyclonal Human AF2244 IHC, WB Yes
723629 Mouse MAB6480 CyTOF, Flow, IHC, WB Yes
Polyclonal Mouse AF6480 CyTOF, Flow, IHC, WB No

View all CEACAM-1/CD66a antibodies.

 

EMMPRIN/CD147

EMMPRIN/CD147 is a multi-domain type I transmembrane protein. It has been shown to have multiple functions as each domain can interact with different proteins and exhibit different functions, including the regulation of matrix metalloproteinases. EMMPRIN/CD147 has been proposed to be used as a receptor by SARS-CoV-2 for cell invasion.

R&D Systems Anti-EMMPRIN/CD147 Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
TRA-1-85 Human MAB3195 CyTOF, Flow, ICC, WB Yes
Polyclonal Human AF972 ELISA, IHC, SW, WB Yes
1159A Mouse MAB7721 IHC, WB Yes
Polyclonal Mouse AF772 CyTOF, Flow, SW, WB Yes

View all EMMPRIN/CD147 antibodies.

 

Furin

Furin is a serine protease that processes a variety of proproteins by cleaving after Arg-Xaa-Lys/Arg-Arg-like motifs. Research has shown that SARS-CoV-2 contains a Furin-cleavage-site (FCS) in the sequence of its S protein. Indeed, Furin cleaves the S protein at the interface of the S1 and S2 subunits, and proteolytic processing of the S protein by Furin is important for the replication and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.

R&D Systems Anti-Furin Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
222722 Human MAB1503 CyTOF, Flow, IP, WB Yes
Polyclonal Human AF1503 IP, WB Yes

View all Furin antibodies.

 

Neuropilin-1

Neuropilin-1 is a cell surface receptor that is abundantly expressed in endothelial cells of the olfactory and respiratory epithelium. Neuropilin-1, which is known to interact with Furin-cleaved substrates, has been shown to bind to the SARS-CoV-2 S protein and facilitate viral infection.

R&D Systems Anti-Neuropilin-1 Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
Polyclonal Human AF3870 B/N, CyTOF, Flow, ICC, IHC, WB No
446921 Human MAB3870 CyTOF, Flow Yes
761704 Mouse MAB59941 B/N, CyTOF, Flow Yes
Polyclonal Mouse, Rat AF566 B/N, CyTOF, Flow, IHC, WB Yes

View all Neuropilin-1 antibodies.

 

Neutrophil Elastase/ELA2

Neutrophil Elastase/ELA2 is a serine protease that is released by activated neutrophils. It is one of the key enzymes shown to cleave the S protein of coronaviruses, facilitating viral entry. Additionally, Neutrophil Elastase/ELA2 can degrade extracellular matrix proteins, contributing to the pathology of several lung disorders including adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).  Neutrophil Elastase/ELA2 inhibitors are being investigated as a potential treatment for COVID-19 as they could potentially limit viral infection by preventing S protein activation and diminish the damage to lung connective tissue caused by the enzyme.

R&D Systems Anti-Neutrophil Elastase/ELA2 Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
950317 Human MAB91671 CyTOF, Flow, ICC, IHC,WB Yes
950312 Human MAB91673 CyTOF, ELISA, Flow Yes
887105 Mouse MAB4517 WB No

View all Neutrophil Elastase/ELA2 antibodies.

 

PIKFyve

PIKFyve (Phosphatidylinositol 3-Phosphate 5-Kinase Type III) is an enzyme that synthesizes a key phosphoinositide (PI(3,5)P2) involved in regulating endosome dynamics. Research has suggested that inhibition of this enzyme may reduce SARS-CoV-2 infection.

R&D Systems Anti-PIKFyve Antibodies
Clone Species Unconjugated Antibody (Catalog #) Applications Conjugates Available
Polyclonal Human AF7885 WB No

 

ACE‑2 in Hamster Lung. ACE‑2 was detected in immersion-fixed paraffin-embedded sections of hamster lung using a Goat Anti-Human/Mouse/Rat/Hamster ACE‑2 Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF933), followed by incubation with the Anti-Goat IgG VisUCyte HRP Polymer Antibody (Catalog # VC004). Before incubation with the primary antibody, the tissue was subjected to heat-induced epitope retrieval using Antigen Retrieval Reagent-Basic (Catalog # CTS013). The tissue was stained using DAB (brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to respiratory bronchioles. All cited reagents are from R&D Systems.

R&D Systems ACE-2 antibody detects ACE-2 in hamster lung.

 

DPPIV/CD26 in Mouse Thymus. DPPIV/CD26 was detected in immersion-fixed frozen sections of mouse thymus using a Goat Anti-Mouse DPPIV/CD26 Antigen Affinity-Purified Polyclonal Antibody (Catalog # AF954). The tissue was stained using the Anti-Goat HRP-DAB Cell & Tissue Staining Kit (Catalog # CTS008; brown) and counterstained with hematoxylin (blue). Specific staining was localized to lymphocytes. All cited reagents are from R&D Systems.

R&D Systems DPPIV/CD26 antibody detects DPPIV/CD26 in mouse thymus.

 

Antibodies Applications Key: B/N Blocking/Neutralization, CyTOF CyTOF-Ready, ELISA ELISA Capture and/or Detection, Flow Flow Cytometry, ICC Immunocytochemistry, IHC Immunohistochemistry, IP Immunoprecipitation, SW Simple Western™, WB Western Blot